HCl - Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, that is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. It is found naturally in gastric acid.
Historically called muriatic acid, and spirits of salt, hydrochloric acid was produced from vitriol (sulfuric acid) and common salt. It first appeared during the Renaissance, and then it was used by chemists such as Glauber, Priestley and Davy in their scientific research.
With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane. It has numerous smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning, production of gelatin and other food additives, descaling, and leather processing. About 20 million tonnes of hydrochloric acid are produced annually.
|kg HCl/kg||kg HCl/m3||Baumé||kg/l||mol/dm3||mPa·s||kJ/(kg·K)||kPa||°C||°C|
|The reference temperature and pressure for the above table are 20 °C and 1 atmosphere (101.325 kPa).|
Vapour pressure values are taken from the International Critical Tables, and refer to the total vapour pressure of the solution.
Hydrochloric acid is a strong inorganic acid that is used in many industrial processes. The application often determines the required product quality.